- PhD, Wesleyan University, 1998
- BPharm, Pharmacy (Honors), Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani, India, 1991
- MSc, (Honors), Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani, India., 1991
- Sundar J., Matalkah F., Jeong B., Stoilov P., Ramamurthy V,
The Musashi proteins MSI1 and MSI2 are required for photoreceptor morphogenesis and vision in mice, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Volume 296, 2020
- Salido EM, Ramamurthy V. Proteoglycan IMPG2 Shapes the Interphotoreceptor Matrix and Modulates Vision. J Neurosci. 2020 May 13;40(20):4059-4072. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2994-19.2020. Epub 2020 Apr 7.PMID: 32265257
- Moye AR, Bedoni N, Cunningham JG, Sanzhaeva U, Tucker ES, Mathers P, Peter VG, Quinodoz M, Paris LP, Coutinho-Santos L, Camacho P, Purcell MG, Winkelmann AC, Foster JA, Pugacheva EN, Rivolta C, Ramamurthy V. Mutations in ARL2BP, a protein required for ciliary microtubule structure, cause syndromic male infertility in humans and mice. Plos Genetics. 2019 Aug;15(8):e1008315. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008315. PMID: 31425546; PMCID: PMC6715254
- Grenell A, Wang Y, Yam M, Swarup A, Dilan TL, Hauer A, Linton JD, Philp NJ, Gregor E, Zhu S, Shi Q, Murphy J, Guan T, Lohner D, Kolandaivelu S, Ramamurthy V, Goldberg AFX, Hurley JB, Du J. Loss of MPC1 reprograms retinal metabolism to impair visual function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019 Feb;116(9):3530-3535. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1812941116. PMID: 30808746; PMCID: PMC6397593.
- Dilan TL, Moye AR, Salido EM, Saravanan T, Kolandaivelu S, Goldberg AFX, Ramamurthy V. ARL13B, a Joubert Syndrome-Associated Protein, Is Critical for Retinogenesis and Elaboration of Mouse Photoreceptor Outer Segments. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2019 Feb;39(8):1347-1364. DOI: 10.1523/jneurosci.1761-18.2018. PMID: 30573647; PMCID: PMC6381253.
- Wright ZC, Loskutov Y, Murphy D, Stoilov P, Pugacheva E, Goldberg AFX, Ramamurthy V. ADP-Ribosylation Factor-Like 2 (ARL2) regulates cilia stability and development of outer segments in rod photoreceptor neurons. Scientific Reports. 2018 Nov;8(1):16967. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-35395-3. PMID: 30446707; PMCID: PMC6240099.
- Deng WT, Kolandaivelu S, Dinculescu A, Li J, Zhu P, Chiodo VA, Ramamurthy V, Hauswirth WW. Cone Phosphodiesterase-6γ' Subunit Augments Cone PDE6 Holoenzyme Assembly and Stability in a Mouse Model Lacking Both Rod and Cone PDE6 Catalytic Subunits. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 2018 ;11:233. DOI: 10.3389/fnmol.2018.00233. PMID: 30038560; PMCID: PMC6046437.
Moye AR, Singh R, Kimler VA, Dilan TL, Munezero D, Saravanan T, Goldberg AFX, Ramamurthy V. ARL2BP, a protein linked to retinitis pigmentosa, is needed for normal photoreceptor cilia doublets and outer segment structure. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2018 Jul;29(13):1590-1598. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.e18-01-0040. PMID: 29718757; PMCID: PMC6080659.
Dilan TL, Singh RK, Saravanan T, Moye A, Goldberg AFX, Stoilov P, Ramamurthy V. Bardet-Biedl syndrome-8 (BBS8) protein is crucial for the development of outer segments in photoreceptor neurons. Human Molecular Genetics. 2018 Jan;27(2):283-294. DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddx399. PMID: 29126234; PMCID: PMC5886228.
About Visvanathan Ramamurthy
1991 B. Pharmacy (Honors), Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani, India.
1991 M.Sc. (Honors), Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani, India.
1992-1998 Ph.D. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Wesleyan University, Connecticut. Mentor: Dr. Donald Oliver.
1999-2004 Biology of Vision, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle. Mentor: Dr. James Hurley
2004-2006 Research Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle.
2006-2012 Assistant Professor, Department of Ophthalmology and Biochemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown.
2012- 2016 Associate Professor, Department of Ophthalmology and Biochemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown.
2016 - Professor, Departments of Biochemistry, Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown.
Protein folding, modification in neurodegenerative diseases and ciliopathies
Protein Folding: We want to identify the significance of Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) mediated protein folding in photoreceptor neurons. Our interest in HSP90 stems from the recent use of HSP90 inhibitors for treatments of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. In cancer trials, patients complain of night vision loss, alluding to the need for HSP90 for normal vision. To uncover the link between the need for HSP90 and vision, we generated an animal model lacking HSP90 using CRISPR-Cas9.
Protein Assembly and Interactome: Proteins function as an extensive network to evoke a particular function. Our goal is to map in vivo the protein networks in the photoreceptor neurons and how these networks change during disease.
Protein post-translational modification and function: Modifications of proteins enhance their diversity and impart unique functionality. Interestingly, several diseases are linked to defective protein modifications. Recently, we have focused on protein glutamylation, as this modification is reversible, potentially playing a dynamic role in the cell. Using a combination of mass-spectrometry, animal models, etc., we are testing the importance of this modification in photoreceptor neurons.
Protein Trafficking: Our human eye contains around 120 million photoreceptor cells (rods/cones). Each of these cells moves proteins at an astonishingly rapid rate (1000 molecules per second in each cell), yet we know little about this process. Following are some interesting questions we are trying to answer:
How do proteins move at this rapid pace? What are the molecular motors that drive this movement?
How does post-translational lipid modification help to retain proteins in different compartments?
Tubulinopathies: Protein diversity can also be achieved by encoding proteins with minor changes to fit the task. A classic example is the expression of multiple tubulin isoforms that make up the microtubules. Mutations in several tubulin isoforms lead to defective brain development, pointing to the unique need for these isoforms in neurons. We have confirmed this with one of our animal models; we hypothesize that defective Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) movement in the brain leads to this phenotype. Besides, mutations in tubulin lead to sensory defects, including vision and hearing. Our goal is to understand the mechanism behind the tublinopathies that leads to hearing loss and defective brain development
Our approach: We use a combination of animal and cell culture models generated by CRISPR-Cas9. Our comprehensive experimental strategy includes electrophysiology, morphology (by High-resolution imaging/Electron microscopy), biochemical, biophysical, and molecular approaches.
Grants and Research
For more information: National Institutes of Health
NIH P20 Visvanathan Ramamurthy (PI) 03/2022-01/2027
Visual Sciences Center of Biomedical Research Excellence $11,140,375
Visual impairment is a terrifying prospect. Our long-term goal is to eliminate or reduce this health burden by understanding the biological mechanisms that underlie vision in health and disease. With this goal in mind, we propose to create a Center of Excellence in visual sciences at West Virginia University to strengthen the scientific community focused on understanding processes essential to optimal visual health.
NIH RO1 Visvanathan Ramamurthy (PI) 04/2017-03/2022
This project will investigate how RNA binding proteins boost protein expression in photoreceptor cells to enable vision, an unexplored aspect of the photoreceptor cell biology. Our work will allow us to better understand how photoreceptors function and how blinding disease develops. We expect that the results of this study will open new ways to treat blinding diseases